X-Ray Production and Control

Mind Map

Learning Guide

Learning Activities

Visuals for
Class Discussion



Outline and Learning Guide

1.      Introduction and Overview

2.      The X-ray Tube

2.1.   General Function of the Tube

2.2.   Anode

2.2.1.      General Design

2.2.2.      Materials

2.2.3.      Functions of the Anode

2.2.4.      Rotation

2.2.5.      Focal Spot

2.3.   Cathode

2.3.1.      General Design

2.3.2.      Function of the Cathode

2.3.3.      Control of Cathode Temperature and Tube MA

2.4.   Envelope (Insert)

2.4.1.      General Design

2.4.2.      Purpose and Function

2.5.   Housing

2.5.1.      General Description and Functions Support and Enclosure Radiation Shield Heat Dissipation

3.      Electron Energy

3.1.   The General Concept of Electron Energy

3.2.   Types of Electron Energy

3.2.1.      Potential (electric circuits and binding energy within atoms)

3.2.2.      Kinetic (within electronic and x-ray tubes, radiation particles within tissue, etc)

3.2.3.      Rest Mass (source of radiation in PET)

4.      The Basic X-ray Machine Circuit

4.1.   Purpose and Function of the Circuit

4.2.   Principle Components

4.2.1.      The X-ray Tube

4.2.2.      High Voltage Power Supply (Generator)

4.2.3.      High Voltage Cables

4.3.   The Controlled Electrical Quantities

4.3.1.      Voltage (Electrical Potential) known as the KV (in units of kV or kVp)

4.3.2.      Current Through the Tube, known as the MA (in units of mA)

4.3.3.      Exposure Time

5.      Bremsstrahlung

5.1.   The Name

5.2.   The Production Process

5.3.   Spectrum of Photon Energies

5.4.   Effect of KV on the Spectrum and Quantity of Radiation

5.5.   Effect of MA on the Quantity of Radiation

5.6.   Effect of Anode Material

6.      Characteristic Radiation

6.1.   The Name

6.2.   The Production Process

6.3.   Effect of Anode Material

6.4.   Spectrum of Photon Energies

6.4.1.      Tungsten

6.4.2.      Molybdenum

6.4.3.      Rhodium

6.5.   Effect of KV on the Spectrum and Quantity of Radiation

6.6.   Effect of MA on the Quantity of Radiation

7.      Efficiency of the X-ray Production Process

7.1.   General Concept of Production Efficiency

7.2.   X-ray Production (approximate % of applied electrical energy)

7.3.   Heat Production (approximate % of applied electrical energy)

7.4.   Effect of Anode Material

7.5.   Effect of KV
NOTE: More details of heat production and its effect on clinical imaging is covered in another session.

8.      Efficacy of the X-ray Production Process

8.1.   General Concept and Definition (Radiation per unit of Electrical Charge)

8.2.   Units (mR/mAs at 1 meter)

8.3.   Effect of Anode Material

8.4.   Effect of KV

8.5.   Effect of KV Waveform

8.6.   Typical Values

9.      Summary