How To Use
These Resources

  The Sprawls Resources
  for Study, Review, Reference and Teaching
Physics and Technology for Effective and Safe Medical Imaging
in the context of the
Sprawls Global Collaborative Teaching Network

 
  • Visuals, Guides, and References
     for classroom/conference discussions
     

  • Modules and References
     to be used during clinical activities
     

  • Guides and Resources
    for individual and small group learning activities

 

 
 Perry Sprawls, Ph.D.
sprawls@emory.edu

 

 Distinguished Emeritus Professor
 Department of Radiology
Emory University School of Medicine
Atlanta, GA, USA
Co-Director
College on Medical Physics
International Centre of Theoretical Physics
Trieste, Italy
 Sprawls Educational Foundation
Montreat, NC, USA

Introduction 
Medical imaging and the practice of radiology is a major source of diagnostic information and is required for guiding and monitoring many therapeutic procedures.  Most clinical facilities now have a complementary selection of imaging modalities and methods with each contributing specific capabilities and values to the diagnostic process.
With the advances in medical imaging technology and methods the procedures have become more complex and their maximum value requires a clinical team (radiologists, technologists/radiographers, and medical physicists) with the knowledge and experience to conduct the imaging procedures.

The significant knowledge needs include:

  • Image Quality Characteristics that affect visibility of anatomical structures and signs of pathology (Contrast, Detail, Noise, Spatial, and Artifacts).

  • The ability to Evaluate Clinical Images with respect to their image quality characteristics.

  • Image characteristics as determined by the Principles and Design of the specific imaging modalities and methods (Radiography, Fluoroscopy, CT, MRI, Ultrasound, and Radionuclide Imaging).

  • Optimization of Imaging Procedures with respect to visibility requirements, risk, and image acquisition time. 

 

Learning the physics of medical imaging is a continuing and progressive process that uses a series of learning activities as illustrated here.  Each activity has its values and limitations.

 Our objective is to provide resources to enrich each type of learning activity and to enhance human performance of both learners (students) and learning facilitators (teachers).
The World Wide Web is highly valuable tool for connecting and sharing knowledge and resources. It provides the foundation and infrastructure for the

Sprawls Global Collaborative Teaching Network

Learning physics is a natural human process by which a person can observe and interact with parts of the physical universe, such as x-radiation, and having an experienced physicist guiding the activity.

 Teaching is the process of helping someone learn.  There are typically two components of teaching.  One is providing connections to the physical universe through which someone can observe, interact, and study.  The other is organizing and guiding the learning activity and enhancing it with one's personal knowledge, experience, and insight.  Collaborative teaching is when these two functions are provided by two or more persons (teachers), each providing a significant contribution to the learning activity.

The Sprawls Resources is a collection of educational materials developed to connect the learner to the physical universe associated with the various medical imaging methods in class and conference sessions, collaborative group activities, and for individual study.

Medical physics educators (teachers) in local institutions use the resources, especially the visuals and textbooks to enhance their teaching activities.

----That is collaborative teaching ----

  The Sprawls Resources are open access and available to all at no cost.

 Online Textbooks

The Physical Principles of Medical Imaging, 2nd Edition
 A comprehensive textbook covering the physics and
physical principles of all imaging modalities.
e-book available online at
 
http://www.sprawls.org/ppmi2
Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Principles, Methods, and Techniques
A complete, easy to understand, coverage of what everyone who works
with MRI needs to know about the MRI process.
e-book available online at 
 
http://www.sprawls.org/mripmt/

Printed text available for purchase
from
Medical Physics Publishing,  http://www.medicalphysics.org
 

For each topic there are the following items as they become available.

Outline

Mind Map

Learning Objectives

Visuals for Class & Conference

Online Module

Textbook

Items are being added as they are prepared for the web.  When an item is added, it will be linked from the following Table of Contents.
  When an item is highlighted and the text appears in blue, click on it and you will be taken to the appropriate material.
Online Modules are being added first for topics that are not completely covered in the text references.
A priority is adding   Visuals   for educators and group discussions.

Table of Contents

GENERAL MEDICAL IMAGING TOPICS
RADIATION
FOR IMAGING
RADIOGRAPHY and MAMMOGRAPHY
FLUOROSCOPY
COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY
ULTRASOUND
RADIONUCLIDE IMAGING
MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING
 

 


GENERAL MEDICAL IMAGING TOPICS

Medical Image Characteristics and Quality Factors

Blurring, Visibility of Detail, and Resolution

Image Noise

Digital Image Structure and Characteristics

Digital Image Distribution and Networks

Outline

Mind Map

 Objectives and Problems

Visuals (Web Page)

Online Module

Text Reference

Digital Image Storage and Archiving

Outline

Mind Map

 Objectives and Problems

Visuals (Web Page)

Online Module

Text Reference

RADIATION FOR IMAGING

Characteristics of Radiation and Energy used for Imaging

Statistics of Radiation Events

Outline and Guide

Mind Map

 Objectives and Activities

Visuals for Discussion

Online Module

Online Text Book

Characteristics and Structure of Matter

Outline

Mind Map

 Objectives and Problems

Visuals for Discussion

Online Module

Online Text Book

X-ray Production

Radioactive Transitions

Outline

Mind Map

 Objectives and Problems

Visuals for Discussion

Online Module

Online Text Book

Radioactivity

Outline

Mind Map

 Objectives and Problems

Visuals for Discussion

Online Module

Online Text Book

Interactions of Radiation with Matter

Radiation Attenuation and Penetration

Outline

Mind Map

Learning Objectives

Visuals for Discussion

Online Module

Online Text Book

Radiation Quantities and Units

Outline

Mind Map

Learning Objectives

Visuals for Discussion

Online Module

Online Text Book

Personnel Exposure, Radiation Safety, and Risk Management

Outline

Mind Map

 Objectives and Problems

Visuals for Discussion

Online Module

Text Reference

Measurement of Radiation

Outline

Mind Map

 Objectives and Problems

Visuals for Discussion

Online Module

Text Reference

 

RADIOGRAPHY and MAMMOGRAPHY

X-ray Image Formation and Contrast

Scattered Radiation and Contrast

Outline

Mind Map

Learning Objectives

Classroom Visuals

Online Module

Text Reference

 Radiographic Receptor Characteristics

Film Image Recording and Processing

Outline

Mind Map

 Objectives and Problems

Visuals for Discussion

Online Module

Online Text Book

Film Contrast Characteristics

Outline

Mind Map

Learning Objectives

Visuals for Discussion

Online Module

Online Text Book

Digital Radiographic Systems

Digital Image Processing

Radiographic Detail

Patient Exposure and Dose Management

Outline

Mind Map

 Objectives and Problems

Visuals for Discussion

Online Module

Online Text Book

Mammography


FLUOROSCOPY

Fluoroscopic Imaging Systems

Outline

Mind Map

Learning Objectives

Visuals for Discussion

Online Module

Text Reference

Fluoroscopic Exposure and Dose Management

Outline

Mind Map

 Objectives and Problems

Visuals for Discussion

Online Module

Text Reference


COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY

Computed Tomography Image Formation

Computed Tomography Image Quality and Dose Management    NEW

ULTRASOUND

Ultrasound Production and Interactions

Outline

Mind Map

Learning Objectives

 Visuals  (Web Page)

Online Module

Text Reference

Ultrasound Imaging

Outline

Mind Map

 Objectives and Problems

Visuals (Web Page)

Online Module

Text Reference

Ultrasound Vascular Imaging 

Outline

Mind Map

Learning Objectives

Visuals (Web Page)

Online Module

Text Reference

 

RADIONUCLIDE IMAGING

Gamma Camera Function and Imaging

Outline

Mind Map

 Objectives and Problems

Visuals for Discussion

Online Module

Text Reference

Gamma Camera Image Quality Characteristics

Outline

Mind Map

 Objectives and Problems

Visuals for Discussion

Online Module

Text Reference

Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT)

Outline

Mind Map

 Objectives and Problems

Visuals for Discussion

Online Module

Text Reference

Positron Emission Computed Tomography (PET)

Outline

Mind Map

 Objectives and Problems

Visuals for Discussion

Online Module

Text Reference

Radionuclide Dose Considerations

Outline

Mind Map

 Objectives and Problems

Visuals for Discussion

Online Module

Text Reference

Measurement of Radioactivity

Outline

Mind Map

 Objectives and Problems

Visuals for Discussion

Online Module

Text Reference


MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING

The visuals that can be used in classroom and conference discussions for all of the MRI topics
 can be downloaded as PowerPoint files at:
http://www.sprawls.org/resources/MRIvisuals/
or by following the links below.

Magnetic Resonance Image Characteristics

Magnetic Resonance Imaging System Components

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

Tissue Magnetization and Relaxation

The MR Imaging Process

Spin Echo Imaging Methods

Gradient Echo Imaging Methods

Selective Signal Suppression

Spatial Characteristics of the MR Image

MR Image Detail and Noise

Acquisition Time and Procedure Optimization

MR Vascular Imaging

MR Functional Imaging

MR Image Artifacts

 
MRI Safety


 


Companion Textbooks

The Physical Principles of Medical Imaging, 2nd Edition
 A comprehensive textbook covering the physics and physical principles of all imaging modalities.
e-book available online at 
http://www.sprawls.org/ppmi2

Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Principles, Methods, and Techniques
A complete, easy to understand, coverage of what everyone who works with MRI needs to know about the MRI process.
Printed text available from
Medical Physics Publishing,  http://www.medicalphysics.org

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Outline

Mind Map

Learning Objectives

Teaching Visuals

Online Module

Text Reference

 

 

 

Outline

Mind Map

Learning Objectives

Teaching Visuals

Online Module

Text Reference