Characteristics of Radiation for Imaging

Mind Map

Study Guide

Learning Activities

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Outline and Learning Guide


1.      Introduction and Overview

2.      Energy Forms and Conversion

2.1.   Forms: Electrical, Heat, Chemical, Radiation, etc

2.2.   Converters: X-ray Tubes, Light Bulbs, Human Body, etc.

3.       Radiation

3.1.        Electromagnetic Radiation

3.1.1.                     Photons

3.1.2.                     Types: X-Radiation, Gamma, Light, Radio, etc

3.2.        Particle Radiation

3.2.1.                     High Velocity Particles: Electrons, Alpha, Protons, etc

3.2.2.                     Energy Related to Velocity

4.       Energy Units and Related Quantities

4.1.   Units: Joules, Kilowatt-Hours, Ergs, Electron Volts (eV, keV, MeV)

4.2.        Power

4.2.1.                     Concept: Rate of Energy Transfer

4.2.2.                     Unit: Watt (Joule/second)

4.3.        Intensity

4.3.1.                     Concept: Concentration of Power

4.3.2.                     Unit: Watts/Area

5.       The Quantum Nature of Radiation

5.1.     Photon Energy - Used to Characterize X-Ray, Gamma, etc

5.2.         Frequency - Used to Characterize RF Rad (In MRI)

5.3.        Wavelength  - Used to Characterize Light (Related to Color)

6.      Electrons and Energy

6.1.    Rest Mass Energy - Source of Radiation in PET

6.2.     Kinetic Energy - High-Velocity Electrons in X-ray Tubes, Human Bodies, etc

6.3.     Potential Energy - Electrical Energy and Electron Binding Energy

6.4.    Energy Exchange  

6.5.     Energy Transfer

7.      Electrical Quantities

7.1.   Electron Quantity and Charge

7.1.1.                     Concept: A Collection of Either + or - Charged Particles

7.1.2.                     Unit: Coulomb

7.2.    Current

7.2.1.                     Concept: Flow of Electrons, The "MA" in an X-Ray Tube

7.2.2.                     Unit: Ampere, or milliampere  (mA) for expressing the MA

7.3.   Voltage - Electrical Potential

7.3.1.                     Concept: The Amount of Potential Energy of Electrons

7.3.2.                     KV - Name of Voltage Applied to X-Ray Tubes

7.3.3.                     Units: Volts, kilovolts (kV) for expressing the KV

7.4.    Power

7.5.    Total Energy

8.       The X-Ray Circuit

8.1.   Transforms Electrical Energy from Low- to High-Voltage (KV)

8.2.   Circulates Electrical Energy Through the X-Ray Tube

8.3.   Controls Electrical Quantities, the KV, MA, and Exposure Time

8.4.   Converts Electrical to X-ray Energy in the Tube 

9.       Alternating Current 

9.1.   Concept and Characteristics

9.1.1.                     Frequency

9.1.2.                     Voltage and Time

9.2.   What is its value and why is it used

9.3.   Rectification and conversion to DC